During the NSA spying scandal in 2013, the « Five Eyes » supervisory authorities were accused of deliberately spying on each other and of voluntarily passing on the information collected among themselves, claiming to have circumvented laws preventing any authority from spying on its own citizens.      As explained by Privacy International, there are a number of thematic secret service agreements that encompass some or all of the nations mentioned above and many others, such as: Perhaps this is a sign of the times that the Five Eyes are not now under pressure by Soviet provocateurs, but by an American government. There are two contentious issues: first, the construction of next-generation 5G networks by Chinese technology company Huawei and, second, the earlier publication of secret service information by the United States to Russian government officials. With regard to the origins of the agreement, the « Context » section of the document describes how « SIGINT`s cooperation with the United Kingdom began in 1941 and was formalized in the 1946 UKUSA Convention. » It is significant, however, that the section states that the agreement « was written so broadly that, with the exception of certain correct names, no changes have been made » and that « the principles remain intact and allow for a full and interdependent partnership. » (The NSA`s publication of documents on the history of the 2010 UKUSA agreement includes both the original agreement and an updated version of the 1955 agreement, the main texts of which are virtually identical.) The terms of a secret agreement, which has become the heart of the special relationship between Britain and the United States, are published today more than 60 years after the agreement was signed by senior military officials. A GCHQ spokesman said last night: « The 1946 UKUSA agreement served as the basis for cooperation between the two countries during the Cold War and remains essential to protect the UK from current threats. » The directive cites the UKUSA agreement as a baseline for the exchange of information (as well as the two policy documents discussed above).